Cybersecurity OSI Model- Cyberattacks at Each layer

Cybersecurity OSI Model- Cyberattacks at Each layer

OSI model consists of the 7 layers and all layers define specific work around in the network. Lets talk about all the layers in detail. The layers are shown in the image with the cyberattacks generally see on the layer respectively

Cybersecurity OSI Model- Cyberattacks at Each layer
Fig 1.1- Cyberattacks at Each layer

⭐Related : CCNA R&S Article #2 – Networking Model
⭐Related : CCNA R&S Article #3 – TCP/IP Networking Model

Lets talk about the layers in detail as below

 ⭐ Layer 1 Physical Layer 

In networks, the physical layer, also referred to as Layer 1, describes all physical media. There are physical layers between the cables and the devices. The physical layers include all network adapters, hub repeaters, BNC connections, and Ethernet cables. End hosts are in Layer 1 connection when physical connectivity, such as connectivity to Layer 2 switches, is connected.

Cyberattack at Layer 1 : You can see  Traffic eavesdropping attacks on this layer

 ⭐ Layer 2 Datalink Layer 

In the OSI model, the data connection layer, often known as Layer 2, comprises switches with frames and MAC addressing (devices hardware addresses). This layer specifies how Ethernet packets should be framed, addressed, and summarized. 

Two sublayers make up the Data Link Layer:-Media Access Control (MAC) layer: this layer manages the permissions that computers on the network have to transmit data and how they can access it. Packet synchronization and error checking are controlled by the logical link control (LLC) layer. 

Cyberattack at Layer 2 : You can see MAC/ARP/DHCP spoofing, VLAN hopping, Rogue access points attacks on this layer

 ⭐ Layer 3 Network Layer 

In the OSI model, the network layer—which contains layer 3 traffic and routing information—is also referred to as layer 3. The network layer is made up of devices like routers and different routing protocols like RIP (Routing information Protocol), OSPF (Open Shortest Path First), IGRP (Inner Gateway Routing Protocol), EIGRP (Enhanced IGRP), and IS-IS (Intermediate System Information System).

Cyberattack at Layer 3 : You can see IP Spoofing, ICMP Redirect, TCP/UDP Flood, SYN Flood, Smurf attack, DDOS

 ⭐ Layer 4 Transport Layer 

In the OSI model, the transport layer is also referred to as layer 4. The transport layer describes how packets are delivered over a network from their source to their destination. It guarantees the network's transmission of signals in the form of 0s and 1s and confirms delivery.

Cyberattack at Layer 4 : You can see Lateral Movement, TCP/UDP port scanning, DNS poisoning, TCP/UDP flood (DDoS)

 ⭐ Layer 5 Session Layer 

In the OSI model, the session layer is referred to as Layer 5. This layer explains the pairing of the request and reply packets during a remote procedure call. The connections between the local and distant applications are established, managed, and terminated by the session layer, also known as layer 5. 

If we are referring to the Transmission Control Protocol's (TCP) layer 5, then this layer is in charge of the graceful closing of sessions.

Cyberattack at Layer 5 : You can see Access control bypass, Adversary-in-the-middle attack

 ⭐ Layer 6 Presentation Layer 

The second-to-last layer in the OSI model, or Layer 6, is another name for the presentation layer. The layers describe how floating point numbers with various math forms can be sent between hosts. 

Presentation service data units are really carried down the TCP/IP stack by layer 5, also known as the presentation layer, where they are encapsulated into session protocol data units. Data is transformed by layer 5 into a format that the application can accept.

Cyberattack at Layer 6: You can see Cracking encryption, Injection attacks, File inclusion vulnerabilities, Cross-site scripting (XSS), Cross-site request forgery (CSRF)

 ⭐ Layer 7 Application Layer 

The OSI model's seventh layer, or application layer, is one of the most crucial layers and is where all applications operate. Software programs that implement a communicative component communicate with this layer. 

Finding communication partners, figuring out resource availability, and synchronizing communication are examples of application-layer tasks. The application layer must determine whether there is a sufficient network or if the intended communication is available before assessing resource availability.

Cyberattack at Layer 7: You can see Phishing, Password cracking, Buffer overflow, Format string attack

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