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ARP flow request works between hosts

Today we are going to discuss about the ARP actual works in the network. As you guys already knew that ARP stands for Address Resolution Protocol. It is used to associate a Layer 3 (Network Layer such as IP address) address to a Layer 2 (Data-link Layer MAC address) address.

As an example we are going to talk the conversation between HOST A and HOST B. Host A would like to send some data to Host B. Assuming ARP Cache is clear on hosts.

Fig 1.1- ARP Request Flow

  • Host A creates an IP Packet with Source Address as itself and Destination Address as the IP address of Host B. The payload contains the actual data.
  • Host A then sends the IP packet to the data-link layer where it puts the Source and Destination MAC addresses.
  • Based on the IP Address and Subnet Mask of Host B, Host A will realize that Host B is not connected to the same local network. It realizes it needs to forward the packet to Router-A as it is the default-gateway.
  • Host A sends an ARP Request broadcast frame for 10.1.1.2- its default-gateway. The ARP Request is encapsulated in Ethernet Frame with Source MAC address as Host's MAC address and Destination MAC address as FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF. The actual ARP Request contains Source Address as its IP address, Source MAC address as its own MAC address, Target IP Address as the Default-Gateway IP address (Router-A) and Target MAC address as 00:00:00:00:00:00
  • Router-A will respond with an ARP Reply to ARP query by sending its own MAC address of the interface connected to Host A network, encapsulated in an Ethernet frame.
  • Host A caches this entry in its ARP Cache and uses this MAC address for every new IP destination prefix.
  • Host A sends the frame to Router-A.
  • Router-A receives the frame with Destination MAC address for it. Router-A decapsulates the frame and figures out the Destination IP address. It realizes that the packet is suppose to be routed.
  • Router-A checks its routing table for the closest match to find out the outgoing interface for the packet.
  • Router-A creates a new data-link frame addressed for the packet's next-hop. Router-A will use the appropriate data-link addresses depending on the type of connection.
  • The same process continues until the last-hop to the destination. Router-C receives the packet.
  • Router-C will realize that the packet is meant for Host B directly connected to its local network.
  • If Router-C is not aware of the MAC address of Host-B, it will send out ARP request for Host-B's MAC address.
  • Once Host-B replies with the MAC address, Router-C forwards the frame to Host B.

Author : Amandeep Kaur, Network Engineer

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